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Plays a phasic change during obstruction, initially increasing to 50 to 70 mmhg, then starting to decline within 2 hr, returning to near-normal levels after 24 h to 3 wk (32). Our direct intrapelvic pressure recording data showed that the basal ipp after 24 h ureteral obstruction was near normal. Genovesi et al. (33) found that the increase in urine flow rates and the corresponding renal pelvic pressure increase closely match the increase in arna and concluded that the change in water excretion, via changes in renal pelvic pressure, is a primary factor in the regulation of arna. In this study, we showed, for the first time, that the changes in ipp and the increase in, and reflex inhibition of, renal nerve activities occurred simultaneously on saline loading and that the ipp increase in the postobstructive kidney during natriuretic challenge was attenuated (figure 2b). Because a small increase in ipp cannot stretch the renal pelvic wall, the attenuated ipp increase may also be a mechanism for the impaired responsiveness of the renal pelvic sensory receptors. The possibility that enhanced erna or intrarenal vasoconstriction in the postobstructive kidney impedes pressure transduction during acute saline loading, then has a profound effect on changes in ipp and renal afferent activation, cannot be excluded. However, the results from our experiments involving graded ipp increases, which directly stimulated renal pelvic mechanoreceptors, showed lower activation of arna over the same pressure range: evidence for a functional defect in the mechanoneurons located in the renal pelvis of uuo rats (figure 4b). The use of the alpha-adrenergic blocker, phenoxybenzamine, to deplete systemic catecholamines (30) or acute renal denervation (11) ameliorate the decreased renal functions seen after 24-h obstruction, which suggests that enhanced renal nerve activity results in worsened renal function. Our direct recordings of erna also provided support for an increased erna involved in the ureteral obstructive injury by showing a high voltage integrative unit and a high spike number when tested by saline loading in the postobstructive kidney (figure 2b). The factors responsible for the increase in renal tissue catecholamines (30,34) and nerve activity (this study) are not known. This study provides evidence that, on the basis of its role in the neural reflex control of erna, attenuated activation of renal sensory neurons might participate in the neurogenic control of renal nerves after one-sided renal obstruction. Renal mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors we evaluated the function of renal mechanosensitive and chemosensitive neurons in sham and uuo rats using specific stimuli, namely graded increases in ipp and nacl concentration. As reported elsewhere (6,24,35), these stimuli produced dose-dependent arna responses in the control kidneys of sham rats, but, in ad. buy cheap viagra cheap viagra online buy viagra online viagra without a doctor prescription cheap viagra viagra without a doctor prescription buy generic viagra buy cheap viagra cheap generic viagra buy viagra online Welcome / Bienvenida / Willkommen / Bienvenue / Benvenuti